Dairy Cattle Disease
failure is the costliest health problem for dairies, and several
viruses and bacteria can contribute to these losses.
Vibriosis – or
genital campylobacteriosis – is a venereal
disease that is spread from cow to bull and bull to cow during breeding.
Although artificial insemination has significantly reduced the incidence
of vibrio in dairy herds, the disease can be spread through a contaminated
pipette or semen. Vibrio often destroys the embryo at its earliest
stages, necessitating repeated breeding.
Leptospirosis or “lepto” is found worldwide,
but is most common in warm, wet climates. It is shed in the urine
and/or bodily fluids of infected animals. Research shows that Lepto
hardjo-bovis is the most common cause of bovine leptospirosis
in the United States and is frequently associated with reproductive
losses, although an infected animal may not show clinical signs.
When vaccinating for leptospirosis, it’s important to make
sure your vaccine contains a L. hardjo-bovis strain.
Two viruses – bovine
herpesvirus Type 1 or BHV-1, also called IBR, and BVD Type 1 and
Type 2 – significantly affect reproductive
performance, in addition to causing respiratory disease. IBR causes
infectious vulvovaginitis and balanposthitis (IPV-IPB), which
can result in abortion or neonatal disease.
BVD infection causes
different outcomes depending on when the cow is infected.
- At breeding:
can interfere with fertilization
- Days 42-100 of gestation: fetal
- Days 42-100 of gestation: infection with a non-cytopathic
strain of BVD can result in a weak or persistently infected
becomes an ongoing source of infection to other cattle
- Days 100-150 of gestation:
Haemophilus somnus is a bacteria that
has both respiratory and reproductive effects, including abortion
Most reproductive disease is sub-clinical,
so cattle rarely appear “sick.” Abortion,
stillbirth, lower conception rates and strung out breeding periods
are strong indicators of reproductive disease, and reduced milk
production can also indicate infection.
A comprehensive pre-breeding vaccination program
will help maximize reproductive performance.
Vib Shield® Plus
L5 is a “one shot” product that can
be used to protect the breeding herd against both vibriosis
and five common strains of lepto. Vib Shield Plus
L5 is made with Novartis’ exclusive XTend® SP adjuvant
that maintains higher and longer-lasting immune stimulation. A
single injection 2-4
weeks prior to breeding helps stop reproductive diseases that
upset breeding schedules.
Shield 6+L5 HB is
the first and only inactivated vaccine available in combination
with L. hardjo-bovis, which is a common cause of bovine
leptospirosis in the United States and frequently associated with
reproductive losses. It contains three BVD isolates – cytopathic
(CP) Type 1 and noncytopathic (NCP) Type 1 and NCP Type 2 – which
are important for complete BVD protection. It also protects against
IBR, BRSV, PI3 and Haemophilus somnus, when Vira Shield
6+L5 HB Somnus is chosen. The
boosts the duration of immunity. Other Vira Shield combinations
are available that include vibrio protection.